Low-income and communities of color in the United States are victims of environmental injustice due to low-income communities being heavily impacted by industrial stationary and mobile sources of air pollution.

Barry Hill, director of the Environmental Justice office for the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), found “76–80 studies that have consistently said that minorities and low-income communities are disproportionately exposed to environmental harms and risks” and cited race and ethnicity as the most crucial factors in determining where stationary and other environmental hazards are placed (Hill, 2002 p. 48; D Bullard et al., …

Marwat Al-Olefi